In my last article, I spent a little time talking about the difference between automation, which is an automated task or scripted solution to perform a task, and orchestration, which is the complete process. I topped it all off with a discussion about how DevOps is a philosophy driving orchestration. For this article, I want to focus in on the some of the most common tools of the trade behind the automation and orchestration for different types of environments.
SDDC & Hybrid Cloud
Cloud computing has evolved from focusing only on how to construct, secure, manage, monitor, and utilize IaaS, PaaS, and SaaS clouds. As the paradigm matures, it is moving from a pure resource management paradigm to a data and resource management paradigm. (Read More)
SDDC is the next evolution in on-site data center technology. It has taken the knowledge gained from the server virtualization revolution and blended it with software-defined storage and networking to create a data center defined and managed by software running on invisible hardware.
Hybrid Cloud covers the technologies and operational processes, both technical and business, for deploying, consuming, and utilizing this paradigm.
Major areas of focus include barriers to adoption; progress on the part of vendors in removing those barriers; where the lines of responsibility are drawn between the cloud vendor and the customer for IaaS, PaaS, SaaS, and hybrid clouds; and management tools that are essential to deploying and managing the cloud, ensuring its security and the performance of applications.
In the industry, OpenStack is seen as very hard to implement. Considering this, I began to think that most people who deploy OpenStack try to bite off too a large chunk of OpenStack at one go, to implement it all instead of just what they need. OpenStack is a cloud management platform, not the hypervisor, so perhaps we can take some lessons from how we installed VMware products when we just started out. We still implement things using the same patterns for vSphere. We should revisit OpenStack with this history in mind.
One of the things we associate with existing IT infrastructure vendors is their determination to go it alone for a major portion of their businesses. Vendor each believe that their solution is the best. They feel that integrating with competing solutions is unnecessary. Oracle and Microsoft were the most well-known examples, happily attracting users with a locked-in architecture and using that dominance to stifle competition. VMware has also exhibited this trait. You may layer additional technologies on top of vSphere, but you cannot put another hypervisor under a VMware product. What we see in open source is a willingness to integrate with other solutions, even competing projects. We are seeing some signs of a change in VMware, but not the dramatic shift that Microsoft has made.
In part one of Cost to Build a New Virtualized Data Center, we discussed the basic software costs for a virtualized data center based on VMware vSphere 6.0, Citrix XenServer 6.5, Microsoft Hyper-V 2012 R2 and 2016, and Red Hat. If you missed that, please click here to review before continuing.
In the good old days (rose-tinted spectacles required), there was only one operating system in the stack. It took care of device drivers and file IO. There were many flavours of OS, depending on the period, from UNIX and Windows to OS/2 and MacOS, and many, many others. Over time, the selection of operating systems in the data center reduced down to Linux and Windows (there are still holdouts for others, for various specific reasons, but Linux and Windows hold about 90% of the OS market). There are many flavours of Linux, but all an app developer in the enterprise really needs to know is which OS they are targeting. More and more, even that level is too low down for the app developer who is looking more at the middleware to make the final decisions.